Commentary: After a year of the EPA with Europe: What benefits for the Caribbean?

By Sir Ronald Sanders

The European Commission (EC) will be holding a symposium on April 22 and 23 on the year-old Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the European Union (EU) collectively and 15 Caribbean countries individually.
There is, as yet, no indication that Caribbean governments or the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat will be holding a similar exercise.

It has to be assumed that each of the governments that signed the EPA has long established units both to implement its terms and to monitor its effects on individual economies.

Therefore, relevant authorities in each of the Caribbean states as well as the Secretariat of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) should be able to provide a list of the benefits that have been secured from the EU under the EPA. Our publics had been told that we would benefit not only from the exports of new goods and commodities to the EU but also from the provision of a wide range of services. Additionally, Caribbean companies would have the right of establishment in the EU.

Against this background, it should be fairly easy for the competent authority in each country to provide information related to just a few matters such as: what preparations and actions have been taken by exporters of goods and especially services to access the EU market; what are the investment plans by companies to establish in the EU market; and how easy or difficult are their plans looking for access to Europe.

There is a very important clause in the EPA which allows for a review of it within 5 years of its coming into force. That clause was hard fought for, and came about only because Guyana’s President Bharat Jagdeo had the courage to insist upon it even after other Caribbean governments had agreed to sign the EPA without such a review mechanism.

In defence of several Caribbean heads of government, it should be noted that they were reluctant to sign and many did so only after their crucial exports of bananas and sugar and some manufactured goods (from Trinidad and Tobago for instance) were threatened by the EC with a higher tariff in the EU market.

But, if the EPA is to be properly reviewed – and it should be subject to such a review on an annual basis – it is essential to monitor its implementation and to gather information that will inform an examination

However, informed sources in the region say that some governments have done very little about implementation and others have done nothing at all.

What is known for certain is that even though Caribbean countries and the EU are supposed to be ‘partners’ under the EPA, the EC has denounced the Sugar Protocol causing Caribbean countries to lose their preferential price for sugar; the EC has agreed a new trade regime for bananas with exports from non African, Caribbean and Pacific countries that will decimate what is left of the banana industry in the Caribbean; and come June 20, the EC will renege on an undertaking to the Caribbean rum industry to help finance restructuring and marketing while at the same time reducing tariffs on competing rum from several Latin American countries.

Not surprisingly several Caribbean businesses have lamented the benefits to them of the EPA so far. For example, Ramesh Dookooh, President of the Guyana Manufacturing and Services Association, observes that “Guyana earns much of its revenue on traditional exports, including rice and sugar, both of which are not covered by the EPA’s duty- and quota-free. Thus, the private sector in our country has its reservations about the economic opportunities available under the EPA”. Nonetheless, he is hopeful. He says: “Wider consultation with stakeholders and a stronger focus on the developmental dimension of the agreements could make the EPAs even more effective.”

Unfortunately, there has not been much evidence of consultation. The experience of sugar, rum and bananas indicate that the EC now takes the Caribbean for granted. After all, they do already have a signed full EPA from the region, so why concern themselves overly about the Caribbean.

The EC also controls the purse strings. They have knotted those strings on the purse of the 8th European Development Fund (ED) from which money for restructuring and marketing the rum industry should have come, and its daunting bureaucratic procedures halt many Caribbean countries in their tracks from getting money to implement the EPA under the 10th EDF.

An EU fund, managed by the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), is reported to be exhausted with no sign of being replenished.

Undoubtedly, the global financial crisis – as well as the failures of regional financial institutions – has battered Caribbean governments. All CARICOM countries have been preoccupied with saving their economies from shocks including worsening terms of trade especially with the EU – even Guyana though it had 3.3 per cent growth in 2009.

But, Caribbean governments cannot afford to let attention to the EPA with the EU slip. The European Commissioner for Trade, Karel De Gucht, recently told German business people: “The economic crisis has temporarily halted the process of globalisation. But let there be no mistake: this process is very likely to pick up again with renewed vigour. The EU must put in place the conditions to benefit from it to the full”. He is looking to a “successful conclusion” of the global negotiations at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) “to boost Europe's GDP by around 45 billion Euros”.

Commissioner De Gucht will measure a “successful conclusion” very differently from the Caribbean, but the region should have its own collective plan of action and its own definition of success on which it should collaborate with like-minded countries.

The implementation of the EPA and the procuring of benefits from it have not been evident so far, and the EC has not been helpful to the Caribbean in the process.

When Caribbean leaders meet their EU counterparts for a Conference on May 17th in Spain, they should be fully briefed and prepared to tell European leaders of their dissatisfaction and propose means of making the EPA deliver on the ‘partnership’ it promised.

Sir Ronald Sanders is a business executive and former Caribbean diplomat who publishes widely on small states in the global community. Reponses to:

South Africa: Race, Liberation and Authentic Citizenship

By Liepollo Lebohang Pheko

Last week on South Africa's ETV an unexpected national moment occurred, a phrase was coined and a YouTube global discourse erupted. A discussion between myself and Andrie Visagie of the AWB (Afrikaner Resistance Movement) brought into sharp focus a whole host of tensions, contradictions and implications of what it means to be a South African in 2010 from two very divergent perspectives.

The last few days have been an opportunity of reflection and stillness through the tumult.

I am deeply moved by countless messages of support, strength and courage from across the country and beyond. I stand in gratitude to the many people who are lifting up prayers and sending love. As I traversed the digital highway a number of nuances lit my consciousness. The thirty-minute programme comes at a moment when race relations seem to have been exposed in all their fragility. As one of the gracious messages conveyed, 'I am forever changed by what I witnessed'.

It is very difficult to express the moment when Andrie Visagie charged towards me in the studio and then pointed at me saying 'I am not through with you'. It happened fast and quickly entered the popular lexicon of talked about events. This has not afforded me much space to revisit the moment. However watching it again has been alarming, offensive and contemptuous in the extreme. Having seen Mr Visagie's response to the question about whether he cares about farm workers in this country, one wonders at the sort of intimidation they are subjected to in remote parts of this country by people like him. The interviewer rightly stepped between us and responses to this intervention form part of my concern. Having read a sampling of the copious commentaries and blogs that sprung up like mushrooms - most of which express concern and indignation at what I experienced - there are some disturbing tendencies being circulated.

I am amused by some of the comments that note that my well-manicured nails show no evidence of suffering. Other bloggers remarked that if I were their wife, they too would have been angry since I talked until Visagie was backed into a corner of impotent rage. Another said that the manicured nails of this independent, opinionated woman in Visagie's face were nearly enough to provoke a beating. It seems that in some people's minds the brutal verbal onslaught upon an African woman by a thickset white man was not only acceptable but somehow deserved. These men effectively stood back and allowed their sister to be assaulted by white supremacy while they watched in amusement and even sympathy with the very supremacy which has also brutalised them.

This suggests a psychosis of self-hate, coupled with centuries of a mental onslaught which now accepts very bizarre, perverse and brutal behaviour as normative. As Fanon articulates, 'the development of violence among colonised people will be disproportionate to the violence exercised by the threatened colonial regime ... violence is in action all-inclusive and national'. None of us have been spared the repeated citations that natives are untrustworthy, lazy and blood-thirsty. Accusations that black people want handouts, free houses and jobs they do not deserve at the expense of white people are the latest incarnation in what is effectively part of the same narrative. The narrative suggests that Africans do not deserve anything beyond the discretion of white largesse and that those who dare for more self determined lives are 'cheeky kaffirs' who pose a threat to the long-standing status quo.

The blogs by some of the white Visagie sympathisers do not bear repetition but remind us that our national identity is fractured and contested. They help us recall that the phenomenon called liberation is far removed from the miraculous melding of rainbow diversity. Several of these bloggers have been given the entry point to enunciate the sort of rage that Visagie usefully brought into the national domain. We are presented with an interesting collision of race, gender and class prejudices. Of the many calls I have received in recent days, none have been from the Human Rights Commission, the Commission of Gender Equality or the Equality Court. I am not aware of anything that these institutions have said in the media that they may not have had the opportunity to communicate to me.

Perhaps they are also grappling with how to reach out to an African woman who inadvertently found herself in the midst of combustible race and gender hostility on live television. It is admittedly complex to examine the gender, race and class intersections then frame an appropriate or adequate response. Even my multiracial church has not managed to frame a concerted response to what many saw on TV screens. It is profoundly uncomfortable. Where the blood of Jesus should be the lowest common denominator, Kingdom citizenship seems to be obscured by very earthly but pervasive discomforts about race, racism and the ugliest facets of discrimination.

One wonders what the response would have been if an African leader perhaps a Vavi, a Mantashe or Julius had castigated and threatened a white woman panellist in the same manner. I have no doubt that the furore would have gone beyond YouTube amusement and entered the realms of the criminal justice system. One can already imagine the likes of Afri-forum demanding an apology, submitting a complaint to the BCCSA and beating a determined track towards the Equality Court before the weekend was up.

At the time of writing the programme has been removed from broadcast because of complaints from viewers who assert that it has created race tension. I am of the opinion that it has merely reminded us of long standing division thus presents an excellent opportunity to have overdue conversations about things we rarely speak of outside confined spaces.

If this incident had occurred to the sister, mother, daughter, wife or neighbour of any right minded man of any race in this country I would like to believe that the blogs which are absorbed by my glossy finger nails would contain far more thoughtful reflection and appropriate outrage. Questions about what was allegedly said to provoke Visagie's outburst have much in common with the rape survivor being asked what she was wearing at the time of the crime. It is the same rationale that which men use to terrorise their partners within the confines of the home because of spurious infractions. It is also the same rationale that asks women whose toddlers have been raped why they left their diaper-clad children in the care of others.

As a young woman in the 1990s I was concerned that the popular call to arms 'wa thinta bafazi wa thinta mbokodo' would eventually narrow the space for women to express pain. It denies us the right to articulate deep hurt, whether physical, emotional or spiritual, and does not permit African women the inherent right to experience the necessity of vulnerability. It presumes that we are rocks to be raped, assaulted, abused, humiliated by employers, traumatised in the home, objectified in popular culture and held ransom to the grossest abuses in the name of culture - all to be borne with stoic dignity. The alibis under banners like 'so strong, black woman, survivor, resourceful' absolve us all from taking corrective action. It is a perverse logic, which must be questioned and challenged.

We have become so accustomed to centuries of being dehumanised, humiliated and subjected to the most violent assault on our personhood as Africans and women that incidents such as this elicit little more than passing outrage. The assault on our personhood extends to the man who was fed to lions, the person who was shot because a farmer thought they were a baboon, the workers dragged by bakkies, the women who were fed urine-laced food at the University of the Free State and whose humiliation was compounded by the inexplicable invitation that these young men return to complete their studies. Some of these would almost seem like urban legends if they were not such atrocious and absolutely indescribable acts of racially charged aggression and hatred.

Reconciliation sixteen years on has not at all resolved the structural deficits nor begun to address economic sovereignty. I beg to differ with the hypothesis that white minority rule is gone and that it is gone forever. It is pervasive in economic power, corporate capital and visible in the GINI coefficient. South Africa's is the highest in the world along with Brazil, higher than India and China. Allocation of resources and opportunity is still skewed along racial lines. The fault lines are evidenced by the still appalling living conditions of most Africans in this country, and the implicit acceptance of this situation. It is the same deficit of values and appreciation of our personhood that allows this to continue almost unchallenged by the new government. They are in effect gate, keeping and perpetuating the years of social apartheid. Having decreed that we stop talking and forgive without any restorative processes, we are ransomed by silent dismay. By our silence we are mocked and in our darkness we are further tormented.

'We want to be free. We are not interested in being a part of this failure of South Africa,' says Andrie Visagie. And yet statistics show the contrary to be true. They show in fact the African majority has yet to receive the benefits of citizenship sixteen years into the new dispensation, and that in fact Mr Visagie and the majority of white citizens have not experienced any recession of their privileges. They are still the winners.

Several people have asked me if Mr Visagie apologised to me once emotions had subsided, even as a public relations exercise. It occurred to me then that the extent sense of censure was a mooted statement issued by the AWB, which received little media attention. It iterated the constitution's principles of freedom of expression, adding that the secretary general's behaviour on ETV contradicted this. No mention was made about the verbal onslaught and the pending publicly-made threat that Mr Visagie made to me. Nor was he asked to explain his remarks. I am owed at least an apology and that apology is also owed to the millions of people in this country who have been subjected to the brutality, dehumanisation, legislated discrimination and systematic removal of land, resources and collective attack on our self-esteem. It has been an attempt to totally annihilate Africans' sense of being and entitlement to self-determined lives in their own country.

Beyond that sense of shame, a sincere recognition of Africans' humanity would act as a useful platform to acknowledge centuries of white privilege, begin the corrective actions that the government has, in sixteen years, done with little or uneven effect.
No one begrudges the nation some much-needed comic relief during these recessed times. It should however not negate a moment to examine the implications of this action and our attendant inaction. This liberation of ours is hotly contested, differentially experienced and highly compromised; the majority are yet to fully move into an encompassing expression of this citizenship and liberation at all levels and spheres of life.

People like Andre Visagie are merely emblems of deeply rooted resentment, unresolved battles and fraught and fractured national identities. And the matter of white entitlement has never been more clearly elucidated. Centuries of unmerited gain and head starts do not seem to form part of their reflection.

Perhaps this is the beginning a process of reconfiguring an authentic sense of our nation. Claudia Von Werlhof expresses it thus: 'One cannot be with the people who are below, without telling the dominant people very clearly, that they have to come down ... The mighty have to get down from their throne, and the powerless have to raise themselves'. Who then will help the powerless to raise themselves and who will climb down from the throne of social and economic privilege?

Liepollo Lebohang Pheko is policy and advocacy director of The Trade Collective and director responsible for social accounting, institutional transformation, social and development policy, Four Rivers.

The AGCG Advertising Network launch will put advertisers in front of black women and expats around the world

The AGCG Advertising Network launch will put advertisers in front of black women and expats around the world

Black women are an economic powerhouse and expats have disposable income and special needs.

Stockholm, Sweden April 15, 2010 – The AGCG Advertising Network provides businesses, service providers and event planners access to the diverse and economically important market of black women and global citizens known as expatriates.

“Black women continue to spend money on the products and services they need even during an economic downturn”, Adrianne George, founder of the AGCG Advertising Network explains. “While they may focus more on items for the household and less on discretionary purchases, black women continue to make buying decisions for themselves and their families”.

Indeed research reported in Target Market News shows that purchases by African Americans of items related to the home continued to increase despite the need for economic sacrifices. Appliance purchases grew 27% to $2.2 billion. Computers for home use climbed 28% to $3.5 billion. Consumer electronic expenditures went up by 32% to $4.5 billion.

“Of course the market for reaching black women extends outside of the United States”, says George. “In fact black women in Europe are often an ignored market yet make spending decisions daily as do their other European counterparts”.

International citizens known as expatriates can be found in every corner of the world and have special needs. “As an expat from the States living in Europe I know these needs first hand”, George reveals. “While the reasons vary for living abroad those who do need mobile phone service, information about schools for their children, insurance options, food stuffs, and other personal items”, she says. “Just imagine starting from scratch and needing to know everything”. Businesses who reach out to the expat market find a receptive audience.

The AGCG Advertising Network is comprised of multiple Internet properties from recognizable brands: Afro European Sister’s Network, Black Expat, Black Female Authors, Black Women in Europe™, EurOBamaBlog, Blog, and Women of the African Diaspora, and provides vertical advertising across several platforms and several channels.

Since one size does not fit all the AG Communications Group can also create advertising plans that include additional websites outside of the AGCG Advertising Network as well as ad copy in different languages.

“The time has come to court black women and international citizens if you want to grow your business and expand your customer base”, says George. “These are two of the most loyal markets”.

AGCG Advertising Network:
Communications Group:

Awaken the Goddess Within April 24th 2010 Breda, NL


In collaboration with Mariposa Import and Màrshé Breda, the Afro European Sisters Network and Women of the African Diaspora organize the workshop Awaken the Goddess Within.

Awakening the Goddess Within is an invitation to awaken your feminine source of power. It is about nourishing a woman from the roots of her being and empowering her from the inside out. Acknowledging your value, beauty and self-worth as a woman is essential to awakening the Goddess within you. Are ready to awaken your goddess within? If so, then this workshop is the space and place for you to meet with your Goddess and other Goddess’s a like.

Program Saturday 24 april 2010:

- 09.30 - 10.00 Arrival

- 10.00 - 12.00 Workshop Jurne Azubiah (UK)

- 12.00 - 13.00 Lunch

- 13.00 - 15.00 Workshop Jurne Azubiah (UK)

- 15.00 - 15.30 Coffee Break

- 15.30 - 16.30 Workshop Lori van Echtelt (NL/US)

- 16.30 - 17.30 Màrshé Breda

- 17.30 - 18.00 Socialize

Workshop Awaken the Goddess Within by Jurne Azubiah.

Workshop Hair and Self by Lori van Echtelt

Workshop Food / Culture and Enterperneurship by Màrshé Breda

Where: Oneness Africa
              Chr. Huygensstraat 44
              4816 BK Breda (The Netherlands)

Price: 25,= euro

Reservations via:

Due to international participants/ speakers the workshops will be in English.

Unique solidarity between the EU outermost and ACP bananaproducing and exporting countries

(Joyce van Genderen-Naar)

The Declaration on Bananas the ACP-EU Joint Assembly adopted on 1 April 2010 in Tenerife last week, is the result of an unique solidarity between the EU outermost and ACP banana producing and exporting countries, among which the Caribbean.

In the joint declaration both EU Outermost regions and ACP countries critizised the EU policy and the EC agreement with the Latin Americans, closed by the EC at the expense of EU Outermost regions and ACP countries. The banana producers from Tenerife/Las Canarias, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the Caribbean, Africa and the Pacific expressed their common concerns. Tenerife and Las Canarias being part of Spain, said how disappointed they are in Spain were the agreement with the Latin Americans will be signed in May 2010.

They called upon the EU to stop this, or else the economies of the Canarias, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Caribbean, Africa and Pacific banana producing and exporting countries will be destroyed. No one understands why the EU is doing this. The Caribbean representatives said that not only bananas, but also rum and sugar, and everything else that is functioning well in the Caribbean is in danger because of EU measures.

As said in the Declaration:
"The European Parliament seriously considers the impact of the issues raised in this declaration before giving its consent to the bananas agreement."

The role of the European Parliament is strengthened by the Lisbon Treaty, which means that the role of civil society (CS) is strengthened too. The Eur. Parl. consults the CS before agreeing on Trade Agreements and EU policy with regard to trade relations, economic and other commercial EU interests. Which means that representatives of interest groups and organizations have to discuss their interests and concerns with the Members of European Parliament if they want them to support their case. So we have to lobby more in Brussels. That is what the Latin Americans have been doing and their strong voices are heard.

The EC defends its policy by saying that the Latin American countries are so poor, more than the Caribbean, and that they depend on the banana export. A very weak argument, because the profits of the multinationals, Chiquita etc., are not for the benefit of the poor people of Latin America who are exploited by these multinationals, that are not respecting labour standards. In a EC meeting on 16 March 2010 in Brussels the International Trade Unions asked the EC not to close Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, because it is the most dangerous place in the world for trade unionists: over 60% of all trade unionists killed in the world are Colombian, 128 Colombian Trade Unionists were assassinated between 2007-2009. That should also be brought forward with regard to the banana agreement between the EC and Colombia.

So what we could and should do is defend our countries' and populations' interest through debates in parliaments (national and on EU-ACP level), with members of Parliaments (national and EU-ACP), in the media, newspapers, at Universities, etc. We have to lobby more.

DECLARATION on the EU-Latin America Bananas Agreement and its impact on ACP and EU banana producers(ES)


The EU-Latin America bananas agreement and its impact on ACP and EU banana producers

The deal

A. In December 2009 the EU came to an agreement within the WTO with the US and Latin American producers to put an end to the long-running dispute on bananas.

B. The deal will mean significant tariff cuts (35% between 2010 and 2017 at the earliest) for non-ACP imports and, as a result, it will harm the
competitiveness of ACP and EU producers.

C. Moreover, the EU is currently holding bilateral talks with certain Latin American countries, with a view to signing free-trade agreements, which may lead to significant further tariff reductions and considerably reduce any supposed benefits to ACP banana producers derived from EPAs.

D. Bananas are the world's fourth biggest agricultural export. The EU market accounts for over a third of all imports.

E. Multinationals operating in Latin America control over 80% of the global market.

F. In 2008, 72% of the bananas sold in Europe were already from Latin America,whereas bananas from ACP countries and the EU only represented 17% and 10.5% respectively. Virtually all ACP banana exports go to the EU, while Latin American countries also export to North and South America and Russia.

G. Banana production has a major impact on local communities, not only in economic terms, but also as regards the environment, migration, gender and labour standards.

H. In some Latin American countries banana production by multinationals has been linked to a high level of human rights violations.

I. The agreement will enter into force if and when the European Parliament gives its consent and the Council authorises its conclusion.

The impact

J. The effects of the agreement, which is an attempt to match sustainable development objectives with WTO obligations, are already starting to be

K. ACP producers will be hit hard as they lose a significant part of their tariff protection. Some ACP countries, which depend heavily on banana exports, may see their export industries disappear altogether with dire social and economic consequences.

L. Without proper accompanying measures, European banana producing regions, some of which are among the poorest in the EU and already face high unemployment, will also pay a hefty socioeconomic price.

M. The multinationals will benefit enormously at the expense of EU/ACP small-scale farming communities.

N. ACP and European banana producing regions will need more financial support to maintain this key economic activity in order to compete with bananas from regions with very low levels of salaries, social conditions and environmental rules.

O. The move towards ever-cheaper bananas is likely to lead to a race to the bottom in terms of labour standards, including child labour, environmental protection, corruption and tax evasion in the banana sector.

P. The European Commission has put together a support package for ACP producers (banana accompanying measures), worth ?190 million over four years, with an extra ?10 million depending on certain conditions. This support does not take into account further tariff cuts resulting from bilateral trade agreements with Latin American countries.

Q. The new concessions made to Colombia and Peru and already requested by Central American countries go much further than those included in the recent agreement and may destabilise other countries in the region, as well as the economies of other banana producers in ACP countries and in the EU.

R. No additional support is foreseen for EU producers, particularly from the outermost regions.

The ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly, recalling that policy coherence for development is now enshrined in the Lisbon treaty, demands that:

1. The Commission conducts an economic, social and environmental impact assessment of the EU-Latin America bananas agreement for ACP and EU banana
producers, as provided for in Declaration XXIII of the Cotonou Agreement;

2. The Commission fairly considers increasing the financial package to help ACP and European producers adjust to the new regime and speeds up disbursement
of these funds;

3. The Commission considers specific additional financial and technical assistance to ACP countries to address social and environmental effects, supply-side constraints and promoting diversification beyond 2013;

4. The EU brings forward measures to help heavily banana-dependent states to diversify their economies, including more aid-for-trade, fulfilling EC and Member States' aid-for-trade pledges of ?1 billion each (with 50% available for ACP countries);

5. The Commission provides support to offset losses incurred by EU producers,gradually puts in place measures to encourage sustainable banana production
in the EU and ensures the effective application of the banana safeguard clause in bilateral and multilateral trade agreements;

6. Any new tariff cuts under bilateral trade agreements with Latin American nations over and above the WTO agreement possibly give rise to adequate compensatory measures;

7. The Commission provides ACP and EU producers with genuine legal certainty on the future of the banana trade regime and that the EP and ACP national parliaments continue to monitor this issue closely;

8. EU and ACP authorities step up their efforts to ensure that all banana producing nations effectively apply all aspects of the ILO's decent labour agenda;

9. The Commission raises awareness on ethical trading to discourage European retailers from importing bananas from producers with inadequate policies on
tax evasion, corruption, labour standards and human rights violations;

10. The European Parliament seriously considers the impact of the issues raised in this declaration before giving its consent to the bananas agreement.

Modeontwerpster E.M. Campbell introduceert haar nieuwe collectie 2010 in Kunstencentrum de Kunstlinie in Citymall 036.

Modeontwerpster E.M. Campbell introduceert haar nieuwe collectie 2010 in Kunstencentrum de Kunstlinie in Citymall 036. Haar collectie bestaat uit 60 creaties van ‘high fashion’. Via een oproep in de Almere Vandaag heeft zij zelf 30 modellen geworven en opgeleid, die haar nieuwe lijn zullen showen. Het merendeel van de modellen is afkomstig uit Almere.

Entree modeshow: € 17,50. Reserveer kaarten door een email te sturen naar:

E.M. Campbell ontwerp voor de ‘Renaissance Woman’.
Op haar website schrijft zij hierover: 'A Renaissance Woman is one who is educated, experienced in many facets of life. She is elegant, independent, resets boundaries, knows her own powers as well as her limitations, is open-minded and progressive, and willing to take steps to enable and empower others. The beautiful woman with brains'.

Naast mode, komt haar creativiteit tot uiting in poëzie en abstracte tekeningen. Haar tekeningen zijn sinds woensdag 31 maart te zien in de etalage van Belfort 13 in Citymall 036.

Kijk snel op haar website om alvast een indruk te krijgen van haar werk.